18(c) What operating rules will you adopt to eliminate or minimize social costs?

Prototypical answer:

gTLDFull Legal NameDetail
.arabLeague of Arab StatesView

First of all, the gTLD will be launched using a lengthy and thorough start-up process, which will likely consist of the following steps:

Pre-Sunrise: Solicitation of reserved domain names from ccTLDs and governments (through GAC representatives, through the ccTLD registry operators, etc.). The duration could range from 60 days up to one year.

Sunrise I: Corresponding governments and⁄or relevant entities may ʺactivateʺ domains from the reserved domains list obtained during Pre-Sunrise on a First-Come-First-Served basis. However, this step maybe skipped; governments can, after the launch of the gTLD, decide at any time when to activate the domains on the reserved list. Approximate duration: 60 days.

Sunrise II: Public bodies, holders⁄licensees of trademarks, holders of other prior rights (such as company names, trade names, business identifiers, personal names, …) may apply for domain names based on the names for which they hold prior rights. Approximate duration: 90 days, although this period can be shortened in case ICANN would decide to implement the IPR Clearinghouse that was proposed by the Implementation Recommendation Team.

Quiet Period: No registration period. Approximate duration: 30 days. The Quiet Period can be shortened or even abandoned in case ICANN would decide to implement the recommendation to set up an IPR Clearinghouse, which would automatically validate prior right claims on domain names during Sunrise II.

Landrush: Anyone that meets the charter eligibility requirements may apply for any domain name. Approximate duration: 15 days.

Auction: For domains that received more than one valid application during Sunrise II and Landrush, closed auctions will be held for all competing applicants. This can run in parallel to phases 3-5. Approximate duration: 30 days.

Go Live: live First-Come-First-Served registrations commence.

This well-structured start-up process has been developed with the objective in mind to minimize the risk that significant (social) costs will be incurred as a result of the launch of the Arab gTLDs.

Secondly, the Registry Operator and, in particular, its selected back-end registry services provider will, prior to the launch, already have engaged in marketing activities, as described above. Therefore, chances are high that the initially targeted community (Arabs that are connected to the Internet) will have learned about the Arab gTLDs and have prepared themselves in order to secure domain names in this new extension.


i. How will multiple applications for a particular domain name be resolved, for example, by auction or on a first-come⁄first-serve basis?

As indicated above, a mix of auction-based and first-come, first-served allocation models will be used, depending on the phase of operations.

The principle of “first-come-first-served” will be the basic principle for resolving a dispute between holders of prior rights after the phased registration period; for conflicting domain name applications submitted during a particular phase in the phased registration period, an auction system is proposed. After the termination of the phased registration, the principle of first come first served will apply in the allocation of domain names.


ii. Explain any cost benefits for registrants you intend to implement (e.g., advantageous pricing, introductory discounts, bulk registration discounts).

No particular cost benefits have been foreseen by the Registry Operator at this stage.


iii. Note that the Registry Agreement requires that registrars be offered the option to obtain initial domain name registrations for periods of one to ten years at the discretion of the registrar, but no greater than ten years. Additionally, the Registry Agreement requires advance written notice of price increases. Do you intend to make contractual commitments to registrants regarding the magnitude of price escalation? If so, please describe your plans.

The League of Arab States or TRA will not allow domain name registrations for periods of more than ten years. Currently, they also do not envisage any price increases, and, if such increases should be necessary, it will provide an advance written notice to all registrars, as set out by ICANN.

Given the fact that the actual success of the Arab gTLDs in terms of volume is unclear at this stage, the League nor TRA will make any commitments as regards the stability of its registry fees in the medium or long term.


officially decided in their meeting of July 2008, following ICANN meeting in Paris, to proceed with the necessary steps to apply for both domain names. LAS also formed a “Steering Committee of the Arab gTLD Project” to work on and oversee the project steps, with advisory technical assistance from ITU and ESCWA for the practical implementation of such a registry.

A Preliminary Feasibility study on Establishment of the Domain Name Registry for the “.arab” and “.عرب” Generic Top Level Domains was developed to provide an initial assessment of the viability of establishing a domain name registry for the ʺ.arabʺ and .عربʺ” gTLDs through studying relevant technical and operational requirements and over viewing business, marketing, legal, financial and capital funding aspects related to establishing this registry.

This Preliminary Feasibility study was submitted for revision at LAS meetings and was endorsed accordingly although proposed institutional⁄governance structures of the registry remained open for discussion. The study also provides a high-level plan for forthcoming tasks and milestones.

LAS AWGII also defined administrative, legal, technical, operational, financial, and business terms and conditions that should be applied to the organization⁄corporation that is going to be selected to manage the Arab gTLDs registry, in the form of “LAS Preliminary Guidelines” document. Decisions that have been taken as regards the governance, operation, structure and setup have been laid down in a document that is referred to as “The Arab TLD Charter: A Strategic Framework for Defining, Implementing and Managing the Arab gTLDs (2010 2014)”, which has been prepared by UN-ESCWA in 2010 and is updated on a regular basis, keeping pace with policy and implementation developments within ICANN.


(a) Provide a description of the community-based purpose of the applied-for gTLD;

Considering the above, it is clear that the LAS has the mission to promote the Arab community’s identity as well as the use of the Arabic language on the Internet.

The .ARAB initiative forms an indispensable cornerstone in this respect, as this will enable physical persons, organizations and companies in the Arab Region with access to domain name registration systems that support the Arabic community and provide the members of this community with effective means to communicate with each other as well as other users of the Internet using their own identities, brand names, trademarks and proprietary TLDs.


(b) Explain the relationship between the applied- for gTLD string and the community identified in 20(a).

The .ARAB TLD refers to various aspects that unambiguously and undisputedly identify and characterize the members of the Arab community:

- language: one of the common denominators of most physical persons, organisations and companies in the Arab Region is that they communicate in Arabic, next to a number of other languages;

- script: the Arabic script is one of the first comprehensive scripts that have been developed by man and is currently still being used by hundreds of millions of people within and outside the Arab Region;

- culture: the Arab culture is one of the first cultures that have been established, and is currently still in existence and experienced throughout the world.


(c) Provide a complete description of the applicant’s intended registration policies in support of the community-based purpose of the applied-for gTLD. Policies and enforcement mechanisms are expected to constitute a coherent set.

Arab gTLDs will be open for registrants who are residents of, established, incorporated or having their principal place of business in one of the 22 Member States of the LAS. This geographic nexus requirement is inspired LAS’ authority described in its founding documents, which is in any case geographically limited to the 22 Member States of LAS. The selected Candidate will be required in this regard to verify compliance with this requirement post registration, and this for a random sample of 1% of the total number of domain name registration volume, on a periodical basis (preferably on a quarterly basis).

Furthermore, Arab gTLDs registrants should have the right to choose to register one or more domain names in only one or both gTLDs. The registry will not automatically “bundle” or “package” domain name registrations.

The registry will also put in place a dynamic list containing reserved domain names (for the registry and for governmental authorities) and blocked domain names (e.g., for domain names that are considered unlawful, or immoral) with the possibility of wildcarding (i.e., provide for the possibility that domain names containing a string that is mentioned in the list of blocked or reserved domain names cannot be registered).

To be included by TLD Manager: a description of the process and policy for the management of this list, and for requests for including additional domain names on it.

Moreover, all data relevant to registry operations of Arab TLDs will be the exclusive property of LAS.

Similar gTLD applications: (2)

gTLDFull Legal NameDetail
.عربLeague of Arab StatesView
.gentCOMBELL GROUP NV⁄SAView