18(b) How do you expect that your proposed gTLD will benefit registrants, Internet users, and others?
|gTLD||Full Legal Name||Detail|
|.机构||Public Interest Registry||View|
The Chinese IDN gTLD will benefit registrants, Internet users, and others as described below in response sections 18b(i-v).
18b(i) The Chinese IDN gTLD’s area of specialty is in providing registrants a local language domain name for greater inclusiveness of Internet users. A goal of the Chinese IDN gTLD is to carry forward the reputation of .ORG as being trustworthy, well-intentioned, valuable information, and reliable. These are the top five brand attributes of .ORG, as indicated in PIR’s annual brand research conducted in 2008-2011. PIR will operate the IDN gTLD registry in the same exemplary manner as it does for .ORG in order to carry forward the environment conducive to such positive brand recognition.
18b(ii) The Chinese IDN gTLD will advance the goals of competition, differentiation and innovation in a number a ways. Creating a language-unique IDN gTLD for organizations will advance competition among TLDs that currently offer domain service to community organizations.
Community organizations use .ORG today, as well as a wide selection of TLDs, ccTLDs, sTLDs. A uniquely identifiable IDN gTLD for organizations will provide the same differentiation that organizations can achieve today with .ORG, but within their own language. This distinction also benefits Internet users who are searching for language specific organizations on the Internet.
18b(iii) With each IDN gTLD that is launched, the Internet takes a big step forward in becoming truly global. English might be a popular language in the world, but there are many people who donʹt use it, or who use other languages together with it. With IDNs, the Internet will reach many more people, who previously were either completely offline, or who used the Internet only in a limited way. The Chinese IDN gTLD will make the Internet more user-friendly for this language community. Internet users will now be able to write a domain name or an URL exactly the way it is supposed to be written - i.e. without substituting the special symbols in Latin-based languages, or without transcribing non-Latin languages into English.
PIR’s Abuse Prevention and Mitigation policies (summarized in response to Evaluation Question #18b(iv) and detailed in response to Evaluation Question #28) will strive to make this Chinese IDN gTLD a safer and more trustworthy environment for Internet users. The policies combat fraudulent activity and abusive practices prevalent in other top-level domains.
18b(iv) To achieve the above goals and assure that the Chinese IDN gTLD domain names are allocated in an appropriate manner, PIR has developed a set of IDN Registration Policies and corresponding compliance and enforcement mechanisms.
The policies are built to match the need of the IDN registrants, based on experience from the .ORG gTLD management since 2003; and to ensure a higher security level for domain names than what currently is considered standard global requirements for gTLDs today.
IDN Registration Policies
The registration policies in support of the goals are described in the following summary and are detailed later in this section.
• Registrant Eligibility Requirements – there are no eligibility restrictions for the IDN domain names, in order to serve a variety of community organizations and remain consistent with the unrestricted use of .ORG.
• Content and Use Restriction Policy – ensures that IDN domain names are not used for illegal or fraudulent purposes or activities.
• Compliance Functions – ensures ongoing compliance of the Abuse Prevention and Mitigation and the Content and Use Restriction Policy.
• Name Selection Policy – ensures that initially only Chinese IDN scripts for domain names are registered.
• Reserved Name Policy – names⁄types of domain names will initially be reserved from registration under the Chinese IDN.
• Registry Name Policy – names⁄types of domain names will be held from general availability, these will be used in support of the registry.
The following policies support the IDN goals and are detailed in subsequent Evaluation Questions of the application dedicated to such policies, as noted below.
• Abuse Prevention and Mitigation – includes the Anti-Abuse Policy which addresses the identification and prompt action taken on malicious use of domain names. Detailed descriptions of the policies can be found in response to Evaluation Question #28.
• Rights Protection Mechanisms – to protect intellectual property holders under the Trademark Clearinghouse, Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP), Uniform Rapid Suspension (URS), Post-Delegation Dispute Resolution Policy (PDDRP), in addition to the Sunrise services and policies that can be found in response to Evaluation Question #29.
PIR will review all policies and processes on an annual basis with involvement from the PIR’s .ORG Advisory Council.
Specific Policy Details
Content and Use Restriction Policy: Abusive use of the IDN domain names will not be tolerated by PIR. The following use and content limitations apply:
• Any illegal or fraudulent usage of the IDN domain name is not allowed, including but not limited to phishing and pharming attacks, distribution of malware, and distribution of adult content.
• Registration and use of a domain name in violation of Rights Protection Mechanisms is not allowed.
Violations of any of the IDN Registration Policies may be grounds for loss of registration, pursuant to the enforcement mechanism discussed below.
Compliance Functions: While disputes will be managed directly by the dispute resolution providers, PIR will to conduct random compliance efforts across all the IDN Registration Policies. Periodically PIR will conduct through compliance staff a sample of IDN registrations to verify compliance with the name and use policy.
If a registrant is found to not be in compliance the registrant will be notified that the domain will be placed on registry lock and that if the issue is not cured the domain will be terminated.
As part of the compliance function PIR will also incorporate its existing expertise, obtained through its management of .ORG, to monitor and take action on any abusive behavior occurring on IDN domain names.
Name Selection Policy: At the time of launch, domain names (to the left of the dot) will be restricted to the same Chinese script used to the right of the dot only. As market demands, additional scripts to the left of the dot will be considered for domain name registration.
Reserved Names Policy: The IDN domain name that a registrant wishes to register must fulfill certain name policy criteria. The following names⁄types of domain names will initially be reserved from registration under the Chinese IDN:
• All single- and two-character second-level domain names;
• Domains of an inappropriate nature, pursuant to a list defined by PIR and its .ORG Advisory Council;
• Names provided by ICANN as required reserved names;
• A list of generic names defined by PIR and its .ORG Advisory Council. Such names will be released in a specific RFP process.
Registry Name Policy: The following names⁄types of domain names will be held from general availability, these will be used in support of the registry.
• Names to support registry operations, e.g., registry.IDN
Compliance and Enforcement Mechanisms
PIR will take measures to enforce the policies of the IDN gTLD. These measures are addressed via our audit process (described below) and through our defined dispute resolution processes.
A violation of the IDN Registration Policies will be enforced on a case-by-case, fact specific basis, under the process set forth below:
1. Any alleged violation of the Rights Protection Mechanisms shall be enforced under the provisions contained in each of them.
Disputes resulting out of violations of the IDN Registration Policies will be resolved through the Compliance Functions and the Rights Protection Mechanisms. The Rights Protection Mechanisms (Trademark Clearinghouse, UDRP, PDDRP, and the Sunrise services and policies) will be made applicable by the ICANN-Accredited Registrarsʹ registration agreements with registrants. Proceedings under the Rights Protection Mechanisms will be conducted in accordance with the policies and procedures that will be included in an appendix to the Registry Agreement. As set forth in the Compliance Functions, registry operator will review on a random basis, monitor, and verify that any particular domain name is being used in compliance with the Rights Protection Mechanisms processes.
18b(v) PIR will manage the Chinese IDN gTLD in accordance with best practices and specific policies around privacy and data protection, as it does for nearly 10 million .ORG registrations today. Specific protections of the WHOIS administered by the registry backend service provider can be found in Evaluation Question #26, and details on our privacy policies in Evaluation Question #28.
Pursuant to its mission, PIR has been conducting outreach since its management of the .ORG domain began in 2003. Ongoing outreach and communications ensures that we meet the projected benefits as described and established in response to #18b(i-v). The Chinese IDN language community is large and global in reach. As such, coordinated efforts and international outreach and communication are necessary to drive awareness of the benefits of the IDN for language-unique identification, differentiation, and innovation.
In 2008, PIR conducted focus group meetings in Shanghai, China to understand the needs of the community and the receptiveness to Internationalized Domain names. The community stated a strong preference to a full IDN experience (an IDN top-level domain) and indicated that an IDN top level domain would lead to mainstream adoption of IDNs.
In 2009, PIR launched a second level Chinese IDN (Chinese domain name prefix using the “.ORG” top level domain). This implementation gave PIR experience with the language and script table, and allowed us to confirm the Internet user preference for an IDN top-level domain. Each provided excellent feedback from the language community to pursue this Chinese IDN top level domain.
Based on PIR’s long-term successful management of .ORG and its outreach, it will ensure the secure and stable operation as well as market adoption of the IDN gTLD.
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